Here are some cases on: Chimney Fire, Flash Fire, Water Hammer, How To Repair Cast Iron, Tank Explodes, Boiler Low Water, Chemical Plant Fire.
The below forensic investigations are from a few of the closed case files. Client names are protected as well as the individuals involved to protect their rights to privacy as well as in those unfortunate accidents where life long disabilities persist for the injured or worse where fatalities were involved.
Steam Condensate Water Hammer in Pipes
The +2-mile steam tunnel steam piping supports had been slowly wasted away and one of the branch steam pipes to a building mechanical room allowed the steam pipe to become partially self-supporting causes water hammer in steam pipes: consequentially, the steam pipe line sagged ½-pipe diameter in a long pipe run or branch in a crawl space. At the lowest steam piping section the steam pipe line collected steam condensate in the steam pipe. When the mechanic brought the building heat on-line the condensate laying in the steam pipe was entrained with the steam going into the building where the operator was. A large heavy cast fitting that redirected the steam 90-degrees ruptured from the steam condensate water hammer. The steam boiler operator was several feet away when the steam explosion occurred and could not exit the mechanical room fast enough. The steam boiler operator was fatally injured. To prevent water hammer in steam pipes and water hammering in pipes maintenance and repairs were needed. Water hammering in pipes had been experienced for sometime. ( water hammer pipe )
Boiler Steam Explosion: Boiler Low Water and Low Water Cut Off
A firetube scotch marine boiler (FTSM) at 200-psi was destroyed by a steam explosion (rapid phase transition explosion) which occurred as a result of a boiler low water condition when the low water cut off controls ( low water cut out ) and safety devices failed.
Chemical Plant Explosion - Pressure Vessel Tank: Tank Explodes
Chemical plant explosion was caused by the thinning of a pressure vessel tank internal -compartment- head that collapsed & buckled. Tank explodes because the integrity of the welds diminished and thinning of the head were overloaded casuing the chemical plant explosion.
Chemical Plant Fire from hot oil auto-ignition of LDPE Plastic to Flash Fire
Large chemical plant fire from scaffolding being moved damaging a pipe. The damage was large enough to spray hot oil on a piece of LDPE plastic sheeting and auto-igniting creating a flash fire in the heart of the chemical plant. The workers had to use at approximately 25-lbf to push the wheeled scaffolding that casued the chemcial plant fire.
Hot Water Heating Boiler - Cast Iron Boiler Expansion Tank Fails and How to Repair Cast Iron
A newly installed hot water heating boiler had cracked the installer showed owner how to repair cast iron, but instead caused scalding or burn related injury to owner when the hot water boiler was brought up to operating temperature where the relief valve lifted and directed scalding hot water on the home owner causing permanent injury. The injury resulted because the discharge pipe was not piped to a safe point and the safety valve lifted because the expansion tank had a leak causing the air cushion to be lost and vented away. How to fix cast iron boilers is not to repair cast iron.
HTHW (Hot Water) Piping Explosion - Water Hammer Flash to Steam Condensate
HTHW (high temperature hot water) high-pressure piping system installed in the1960's ruptures from anoperational hydraluic 'bump' from the campus physical plant.
The campus heavy duty piping was found to have many localized corroded manhole and pipe. High water table and poor drainage from rain and snow melt caused corrosion. The corrosion protection system installed in the 1960s was depleted after many decades and their location was not documented.
Thining of the piping was reached danagerous levels and failures occured.
What is a hot water boiler: HTHW is a High-Temp Hot Water Boiler - Generator, MTHW Boiler (Generator) is a Medium Temperature Boiler or Generator and a hot water boiler is considered a LTHW Boiler or Generator.
Roof Fire with Chimney Flue: Boiler Oil Burner
Boiler chimney flue was installed in building a decade and a half before the chimney flue thimble eventually caused the roof fire. Testing, examination and reconstruction proved the chimney flue construction method used was poor, for the factory built chimney flue was assembled incorrectly and chimney flue leaked hot chimney flue gases on roof combustibles. Under a specific atmospheric and building draft conditions the roof auto ignited setting the large building roof on fire. ( Chimney fire )